The Effect of Spiritual Intelligence and Optimistic on Creativity in Team and Individual Sports Activities of Trabzon University Students
- Spiritual intelligence, Optimism, Creativity, Team sports, Individual sports.
The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of spiritual intelligence and optimistic on creativity of team and individual athletes of Trabzon University. In order to measure the spiritual intelligence, the optimism and the creativity variable, the standard questionnaires (Amram and Dryer, 2008), (Webber and Smokowski, 2018) and (Torrance, 2000) were used respectively. The reliability of the questionnaires was also evaluated by Cronbach's alpha test, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the spiritual intelligence, optimism and creativity questionnaires were 0.75, 0.83, and 0.81 respectively. The questionnaires were comprised of a sample of 148 students from Trabzon University: 74 of team athletes such as soccer, volleyball, basketball and handball as well as 74 individual athletes such as tennis, badminton, track and field, swimming, etc.. The findings showed that: spiritual intelligence and optimism has a significant effect on creativity of all team and individual athletes. Spiritual intelligence and optimism has a significant effect on creativity of individual athletes. Team and individual athletes have a significant difference in optimism and creativity variables. So the observed significant difference was due to more creativity of team sportsmen.